marco rinaldi



In a context where sustainability plays an increasingly central role, our material emerges as a promising option for those seeking innovative and environmentally friendly solutions. Its adaptability and distinctive characteristics make it not only a cutting-edge product but also a tangible contribution to building a more sustainable future.


The material is the result of combining pomegranate and milk waste, highlighting a high content of polyphenols and proteins. Throughout the production process, which valorizes materials previously considered waste, efforts are made to minimize environmental impacts. The introduction of natural binders, such as agar agar and glycerol, not only contributes to imparting promising mechanical and chemical properties to the final product but also represents our commitment to a sustainable and environmentally respectful production approach. The physical and chemical characteristics of this material make it a valid candidate for a wide range of applications. Particularly in the leather and fashion industry, significant prospects emerge for the production of biodegradable items. The intrinsic versatility of this material not only provides creative solutions but also promotes the adoption of eco-friendly production practices.


The process to obtain the final product begins with the extraction of pomegranate juice. Initially, it is necessary to remove the seeds and residues of the inner peel, focusing solely on the juice. Filter the mixture with gauze to separate the juice from residues like seeds and pulp. It is crucial to eliminate these residues to avoid impurities in the final material.


Milk is a complex mixture composed of casein, a protein, which undergoes a pH change in the presence of acids found in pomegranate juice, exceeding the temperature of 37 degrees. This change could lead to the precipitation of casein molecules, causing their aggregation and the formation of curds.


Honey represents a complex mixture of sugars, water, and various organic compounds, including acids, enzymes, vitamins, and minerals. The interaction between honey and casein can involve various molecular interactions, including hydrogen bonds.


It is a trivalent alcohol that, when combined with various fatty acids, forms glycerides, characteristic components of natural fats such as vegetable and animal oils. Glycerol, when combined with casein, leads to the formation of hydrogen bonds.



Agar agar is a natural gelling substance, consisting of a heterogeneous mixture of saccharidic nature composed of agarose and agaropectin. The gelation and liquid fusion occur at a temperature between 80-90 degrees, at which point agarose acts on the mixture by absorbing water.

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The slow drying process lasting 10 hours at a controlled temperature of 35 degrees mainly involves chemical and physical aspects, primarily linked to the controlled removal of water.


Evaporation Of Water
Concentration Of Substances
Strengthening Of The Gel Structure

The bio-material obtained can be likened to leather due to certain physical properties, such as elasticity, softness, warmth, tensile strength, flexibility, weight, and density. However, this material is adaptive when in a liquid state; it can also be poured into various molds, presenting textures desired for the skin.


In conclusion, the analysis of the biomaterial reveals surprisingly similar characteristics to natural and artificial skin currently available on the market. The texture of the final material closely approximates that of skin, providing a highly similar aesthetic. By increasing the proportions in creating the biomaterial, it is possible to achieve a final product that emulates the qualities of leather, with high mechanical properties. The material’s versatility extends to its ability to be easily modified through the absorption of natural water-based dyes, allowing for a wide range of shades, depending on the dyes used.


Given its extraordinary resemblance to skin, during the conclusive studies, the biomaterial was subjected to a series of tests simulating typical processes in the leather industry. Phases such as perforation, padding, weaving, coating, gluing, and stitching were carefully examined, and our material demonstrated successful performance in all these techniques, offering promising results.


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